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Jul 8, 2018

Five universities across three Spanish-speaking countries are now offering crypto courses. Among major topics of studies are Bitcoin, Ethereum, cryptocurrencies, blockchains, initial coin offerings (ICOs), smart contracts, DAOs, and crypto-economics.

Also read: Yahoo! Japan Confirms Entrance Into the Crypto Space

Universidad de Alcalá, Spain

Universidad de Alcalá is a public university located in Alcalá de Henares, Madrid. It is a Unesco world heritage site and one of the longest standing European universities, dating back to the year 1293.

The school now offers a course entitled “Master in Ethereum, Blockchain Technology and Crypto-Economics.”

The course is intended for “Professionals, students or those interested in learning about blockchain-based technologies from an integrative perspective of technical, economic, social and legal aspects,” the school’s website details.“The objective of the study is to provide comprehensive training in the field of blockchain technology, DAOs and smart contracts, including cryptocurrencies as a special and transversal case, from a triple perspective: technological, economic-financial and regulatory.”

Universidad Autónoma de Madrid (UAM), the Autonomous University of Madrid, is a public university located on the north side of Spain’s capital city. Established in 1968, the school is currently offering a short course, from July 18 to 20, entitled “Blockchain: from cryptocurrencies to business networks.”

“In this course, the technical foundations of the Bitcoin blockchain will be introduced, with an eminently practical approach, showing its limitations and placing special emphasis on the problems it poses regarding the intelligent management of records and their authorship,” according to the course description.

“As solutions to these problems, the concept of smart contract and its implementation and use will be introduced in Ethereum and Hyperledger. Finally, in the context of a roundtable, possible models and business networks based on blockchain will be discussed.”

Universidad Europea Madrid, the European University of Madrid, is a private university with more than 16,000 students. The school offers a 6-month postgraduate diploma in Bitcoin and blockchain which starts in October.

Six modules are included in the course: blockchain technology; basics of Bitcoin; security and investigation of the blockchain; legal aspects linked to cryptocurrency; innovation with the blockchain; and project development.

“When you finish the course you will be able to analyze in a critical way the technical and legal viability of solutions based on blockchain technologies and to develop integral projects related to cryptocurrency,” the school describes. “You will be a professional in the technology sector capable of identifying innovative opportunities beyond the conventional use of technology, adding value to any company in the ICT or financial sector.”

Carbon Cycle:

Nitrogen cycle:

Vladimir Vernadsky decided, in 1926, that only two domains of life existed on Earth, Bacteria and Eukarya.[37] About 50 years later in 1977, Carl Woese and George Fox theorized that part of the bacterial domain possed multiple dissimilarities from bacteria and recognized it to be another domain of life, now called Archaea.[38] Woese and Fox’s theory regarding the differences of archaea were confirmed in 1990’s through the use of 16S rRNA and 18S rRNA.[38]

Despite the strongly held belief, in the 1990s, that archaea only inhabited extreme environments, recent discoveries have suggested their presence in abundant numbers all throughout the Earth. It is suggested that Archaea play notable roles in maintaining nutrient cycles.[37] Various methods of research, such as cultivation, culture-independent techniques and isotope-based methods, have facilitated the study of domain Archaea in carbon and nitrogen cycling. [37]

The use of genomic and biochemical data has permitted the study of archaeal structure.[37] Use of these research methods has shown that domain archaea and domain bacteria differ in cell wall characteristics yet, share various ways to transfer genetic information by replication and transcription from their common ancestor, Eukarya.[37] As of 2012, 116 genera of Archaea have been observed which consists of 450 species. Most of the archaeal species in these genera remains uncultivated, known only through its gene sequences and molecular surveys.[37]

Archaea are characterized by various cell sizes. They are most commonly found to be small organisms ranging from “0.1 to 15 μ diameter and up to 200 μ long.”[38] The shape of many archaea are similar to bacteria, including bacillus, cocci, spirilla and “plate-like forms.” [38] Their cell membranes have ether linked lipids with no periplasmic space, similar to gram-positive bacteria, and contain no intracellular organelles.[39]

Flagella: Most motile archaea inhabit a motor rotary system that allows it to move its flagella through the chemical gradient similar to bacteria.[39] Despite its similarity in function and source of energy required for motility, the flagella of both archaea and bacteria differ in structure.[39] Archaeal flagella gets the energy for its movement by ATP and is composed of dependent filaments that rotate singularly. [40] Archaeal flagella are known to be thinner than bacteria flagellin.[40] Since, the archaeal common ancestor is not bacteria but eukarya, convergent evolution is a plausible explanations for the differences between bacterial and archaeal flagellin. [40]

Membranes: Archaea have a cell membrane that protects the cytoplasm and the nucleic acids from the environment. The archaeal cell membrane has a lipid bilayer with glycol-ether lipids that are more stable than ester linkages and help some archaea that live in extreme environments to withstand such conditions.[39] Most archaeal species are surrounded by a cell wall which protects the cell membrane and maintains the archaeal structure.[41]

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